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A Rootless Jade Plant

The lack of a good root structure indicates to me that your Jade Plant (Crassula argentea), was probably being over watered in its previous pot. Succulents generally will send their roots out only far enough to find a sufficient source of water.
Jades do need more water than most other succulents because of the large amount of surface area of their leaves, BUT they also need a period of drought between waterings. During an active growing period, they should be drenched every week or two, then left to dry.
When your Jade plant is in its dormant period, you can wait for up to a month before re watering...
For succulents, I recommend that you use a sterile (no insects or weed seeds), commercial potting soil to which you have added course builders sand at a ratio anywhere from a 50/50 mix to a mix of about 4 parts soil to 1 part sand, depending on the brand of soil and type of succulent. (The sand will allow the potting mixture to drain faster)
. Since you have already re-potted your plant, go ahead and leave it as it is, but withhold watering as much as possible until the leaves begin to shrivel a little, then water thoroughly. Repeat this process as necessary until the plant has rebuilt its root structure and is able to stand on it's own. (this might take a year +-)
Fertilizing should be withheld until the plant has begun to recover, and is showing signs of strong, new growth..

Jades can be pruned to whatever shape you desire.
The parts that have been removed can be rooted and used as new plants. Each cutting should be allowed to callous over (very important), for at least a day or two (longer if the cut surface is large)
Plain, healthy leaves can be set with the cut slightly embeded into the soil surface. These will produce a miniature clone of the parent plant in about 2-3 months.
Stem cuttings should be set about 1-2 inches deep, and will root and begin growing in as little as a month.
Very little water should be given until the new roots have begun to form.
Jade Plant in Bloom
Jade Plant in Bloom
Crassula argentea